Tuesday, April 22, 2014

Ben LaBelle's Internship, Spring 2014 - Part 5

Hello everyone,

This is Ben from the sorting lab again. Today, I would like to take you on a quick run through of sorting a sample and show you some of the major groups we find in our samples. First, we rinse the stained sample and place it into a sorting dish so we can start sorting through the sediment, shells and other debris.
As I come across organisms, I like to place them into a small dish of ethanol so I can come back to them later and view them clearly for ID. It’s surprising how much better you can see fine detail when you do not have to look around all the sediment and left over stain floating around in the sample dish.

Nematodes are some of the most common, and usually smallest, organisms we encounter in our samples. These small, simple worms are mostly deposit feeders and ingest large amounts of sediment in their hunt for food.
The next group we encounter in almost every sample are the polychaetes. These segmented worms have a wide range of feeding strategies, including deposit feeding, suspension feeding and predation. Here you can see one next to an empty gastropod shell.
Harpacticoid copepods are another common group found in our samples, though not nearly as common as the nematodes or polychaetes. These small benthic crustaceans are typically distinguished by their antennae.
Another common crustacean group found in our samples are ostracodes. These are sometimes difficult to distinguish from bivalve mollusks due to the similar shell structure, but you can usually see antennae sticking out of the shell, or hair like projections like this specimen below to help sort them out.
Tanaids, another crustacean group, are often found in our samples. These small shrimp like creatures are relatively common in the deep ocean sediments and can most easily be identified by their pair of large claws.
Aplacophorans are a semi-common feature in our samples. These primitive mollusks are almost exclusively found in deep water and are fairly easy to recognize in samples because of their pearlescent sheen.
Intact scaphopods, or tusk shells, are a rare occurrence in our samples. The shells of these deposit feeding mollusks are often seen, but a live-on-collection specimen only occurs in a small fraction of samples.
The last group I found represented in this particular sample was the ophuroids. Ophuroids, or serpent stars, are another rare occurrence in our samples. These organisms are common in the deep sea, though many are far too large to be represented in our multi-corer samples. Small specimens like this one, or more often, pieces of the arms, are occasionally found however.
Here we have all the organisms from this particular sample in the dish of ethanol, ready to be ID’d and put into vials for family level ID by Arvind.
 Posted By:

Ben LaBelle, Florida State University

Friday, April 18, 2014

Emily Hladky's Internship, Spring 2014 - Part 6

When people think of research, many often picture a crazy scientist, working alone in a lab. But that is not what it is like at all, at least not at USF's PaleoLab. The PaleoLab is full of scientists from various backgrounds that work together and support each other; many friendships are created in this lab.

Every Friday the lab gets together to have bagels for breakfast, sometimes cake for birthdays or for those who have successfully defended their thesis. This time gives people the chance to get to know each other better on a personal level, whether they are professors, graduate students, post-docs, or interns. Talks range from current research and new findings to how someone’s vacation went and what the plans are for this weekend. It builds a strong community and also a close, comfortable work environment that is actually fun to be a part of. I feel lucky to be a part of such a great lab where I have been able to make new friends, have a great mentor that has been nothing but supportive, and work on interesting and important research!

Posted by:
Emily Hladky - St. Petersburg, FL

Thursday, April 10, 2014

Not every oil spill is the same...

Oil-covered rocks at Coal Oil Point near the University of California, Santa Barbara.
If you did not know it, you would think these splotches of oil painted on these rocks were from an oil spill.
They were but not from humans -- they are from natural seeps. (Photo credit: Chris Reddy, WHOI)
The grey-colored rocks with the holes are actually
chunks of oiled that have weathered or changed
so much through time that they have become solid.
If you hit them with a hammer, you can still smell oil.
(Photo credit:  Chris Reddy, WHOI)
Not every oil spill is the same and there is an adage that oil spills are like buying a house, “location, location, location.” And crude oils and their distilled products are like people —  “they each have their own personality”. This personality makes some oils more toxic, some more likely to evaporate, some easier to clean-up, and some harder to analyze. Hence, the fate, toxicity, and how to clean-up oil spills, for example, is also dictated by their personality. So if you couple that spills can differ based on where they occur and what type of oil, you get a wide range of potential outcomes a challenge. 

Yet, studying different spills does provide an opportunity to compare and contrast them, pushing us to understand how oil evolves once in the environment. Like many other aspects of science, we can incrementally learn about oil spills by studying each one. In this case, my laboratory members, colleagues, and I have been busy the past week collecting samples in Texas (Texas City spill: 2014), Louisiana (Deepwater Horizon: 2010), and California (oil seeps: on-going for a long time). 

Oiled sand-patties found in Grand Isle, LA
that are telltale remnants of the
Deepwater Horizon. Please note a new
APP we use called SOLOCATOR.
Using your smartphone with
SOLOCATOR, your pictures
get stamped with the time
and location.
(Photo credit: Chris Reddy, WHOI)
Please see recent blog posts by Bob Swarthout and Bob Nelson ("the two Bobs") from my laboratory about their work on the Texas City spill. I collected samples from Santa Barbara, CA last week while on vacation with my wife, Bryce. I guess this may not bode well for our marriage, but my wife didn’t mind. Both her and I were astonished to see so much oil on the beaches of Santa Barbara that have nothing to do with humans. Rather natural seepage of oil from cracks in petroleum reservoirs that percolate up into the ocean. I have been studying seeps for the past 10 years as they are living laboratories and because they are occurring every day.  So, it’s a great chance to capture the earliest moments of when oil interacts with water and air, and if you look carefully, where oil has been on nearby coastlines for thousands of years. 

Christoph Aeppli.
A few days ago, I traveled to Grand Isle, LA with my colleague, Christoph Aeppli, to collect remnants from the Deepwater Horizon (as part of a long-term project initiated in 2011). We can still find traces of oil at this site. What was so surprising about Grand Isle and nearby Elmer’s Island was the presence of different oiled-samples. We could see the characteristic oiled sand-patties with their orange tint from the Deepwater Horizon. To be prudent, we will have to fingerprint the oil residues back in my lab but the color and shape of these patties is pretty much telltale. 

What was surprising was that we observed many samples that appear to be oil in nature that looked like hockey pucks and had a soft, rubber-like consistency. We have seen similar samples at this location over the years and determined that they were not from the Deepwater Horizon. I expect the same but will need to confirm it. What this means is that not every sample found on the Gulf coast can presumably be from the Deepwater Horizon, which is entirely reasonable considering the region’s past and active drilling and natural seeps, too. 

“Skid marks” on the beach in Grand Isle, LA that have an orange tint similar to other samples from the
Deepwater Horizon. (Photo credit: Chris Reddy, WHOI)
Last, we noticed orange-brown patches of sand that looked like skid marks. Again, we will need to check the source of this oil but it looks like its from Deepwater Horizon. While I have been to Grand Isle many times and other Gulf beaches, I have never seen these patches. 

Unusual oil-like samples found on Grand Isle.
We will need to test the oil to find out its source.
(Photo credit: Chris Reddy, WHOI)
Fieldwork is the first step of many when studying oil spills. It can be fun to be out of the laboratory or not writing emails, but its hard work. You have to pay attention to the surroundings and take good notes. You have to be meticulous when archiving the samples. Occasionally back in the lab, a sample’s label does not match our notes. When this happens, we have to throw out the sample. If not, we will always have some doubt when considering it. Nature is not a controlled setting like a laboratory, providing us with so many variables. The last thing we want is one more, like the questionable provenance of a sample. 

With the samples back in the lab or on their way, we will determine the type of oil in these samples which ones our similar or not, and ascertain how nature may have changed or “weathered” the oil. Like a jigsaw puzzle, we hope that we can add a few pieces to the science of spills from these trips. And maybe, we might get a corner piece! 

Post Author:
Dr, Chris Reddy
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

Sunday, April 6, 2014

Back in the WHOI lab (April 2, 2014)

Highly viscous, fresh oil on a vertical
glass plate moved only a
few centimeters after 15 minutes
at room temperature.
(Photo credit: Bob Swarthout)
The Port of Houston is one of the largest and busiest ports in the U.S. and is home to the second largest collection of petrochemical processing facilities in the world. About 38 oil tankers navigate the port on an average day in addition to hundreds of barges moving cargo related to petrochemical processing. Given this high volume of petrochemical ship traffic it seems inevitable that collisions between ships like the one that happened on March 22 will occur and it is likely that the area has been impacted by smaller spills in the past.

On our last day of sample collection we encountered evidence of some of these other oil spills. On the Bolivar Peninsula to the north of the spill site at the Fort Travis Seashore Park seawall, we found small samples of fresh oil, but large patches of older oil that was more like concrete and had to be chiseled from the rock. Further north, in the Bolivar Flats Shorebird Sanctuary we found no fresh oil, but did find a tarball that was possibly from an older oil spill and was the consistency of a hockey puck. After collecting these last samples, we shipped everything back to the laboratory.

“Hockey puck” tarball found on Bolivar Peninsula that may be from a previous oil spill.
(Photo credit: Bob Swarthout)

Oil extracts fluoresce under an ultraviolet light
showing the presence of large amounts of hydrocarbons.
(Photo credit: Bob Swarthout)
With the oil samples now in the laboratory, we have started our analyses. This bunker fuel oil is extremely viscous and hardly moves when sample jars are turned upside-down at room temperature. Examining a preliminary extract of the hydrocarbons in the oil with an ultraviolet light shows that it is loaded with fluorescent compounds. It will take some time to analyze all of the samples, but our comprehensive fingerprinting analyses will be able to definitively determine which samples were from the March 22nd spill and which were from other sources. And, analyzing samples collected over the next few months will show us a great deal about how the chemicals in this type of oil weather over time.

Posted by: 
Robert Nelson, Research Specialist
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution 

Bob Swarthout, Post-Doc
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution